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Saturday, April 19, 2014

Social Robotics and AI

What are the implications for improving AI?   In an internet of things and people ... with things getting more intelligent and being able to take the initiative more often, what will the rules of interaction be?  Examined this once before, in the 90s, and it is worth looking at again.  I believe the radical changes suggested are still many years away.  It is useful to think about how they need to be architected to maximize our value and safety.  How long can we depend on regulatory and legal protection?

 Patrick Tucker examines the issue.  Pointing to " ... computer scientist and entrepreneur Steven Omohundro says that “anti-social” artificial intelligence in the future is not only possible, but probable, unless we start designing AI systems very differently today.  Omohundro’s most recent recent paper, published in the Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence, lays out the case.  ... " .  A simplistic initial look, but a useful starting point to consider.

The technical paper pointed to is: Autonomous technology and the greater human good by Steve Omohundro   Abstract:

" ... Military and economic pressures are driving the rapid development of autonomous systems. We show that these systems are likely to behave in anti-social and harmful ways unless they are very carefully designed. Designers will be motivated to create systems that act approximately rationally and rational systems exhibit universal drives towards self-protection, resource acquisition, replication and efficiency. The current computing infrastructure would be vulnerable to unconstrained systems with these drives. We describe the use of formal methods to create provably safe but limited autonomous systems. We then discuss harmful systems and how to stop them. We conclude with a description of the ‘Safe-AI Scaffolding Strategy’ for creating powerful safe systems with a high confidence of safety at each stage of development. ... " 

A Mess in Communications Among an Internet of Things

In CWorld:   Of interest, in particular standards are key to making this approach work.   Lack of interoperability, in particular in home automation, are key problems.  On the commercial side see my posts on background and status in the Industrial Internet.  An internet of things means we can have sensors in more locations.  The data captured can then be utilized to improve process.

Twitter Classifications

As part of a recent project about twitter feed relevancy. I found this short mention of content classification of Tweets in the wikipedia.    See the link for further references:

"Content Classification

San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the US and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories:[90]

Pointless babble – 40%
Conversational – 38%
Pass-along value – 9%
Self-promotion – 6%
Spam – 4%
News – 4% ... "

Infographic on Workplaces of the Future

Yes, there are useful numbers in this graphic.  The topic is very interesting. And has a pointer to the origin of the sources.  But I count only 8 readily usable numbers from the several page document.   Its's bloat, and I cannot easily manipulate the numbers. Give me more information density.

Speedier Checkouts

Always a big labor and satisfaction consideration for physical retail:

Kroger takes retail technology of the year:
" ... While the bigger retail technology buzz last year went to data tracking devices, augmented reality and drones, the top retail innovation in InformationWeek's Elite 100 went to Kroger Co.'s QueVision system that ensures customers never have more than one person in line ahead of them.

In fact, the system landed third on the list of the top business technology innovators in the U.S. across industries. Now in more than 2,400 stores, QueVision has reduced checkout times on average from four minutes to less than 30 seconds. ... "

Friday, April 18, 2014

Visualization of Telecommuting Data

A good data visualization of information about US telecommuting, with a strong ability to interact with the data.  In the Tableau Public site.  Much better than an infographic in display and adaptability for further study.  Answering the question:   " ... Is Telecommuting the Wave of the Future? ... Working from home may be the way of the future, as shown by Peter Kim in this viz published by Drew Hendricks of Forbes. Use the drop down filter to investigate different characteristics of the US population.  ... " 

Shoppers Want More Value

It is obvious Shoppers want an exchange of value.  The specific statistics are of interest.

Grocery shoppers want more from mobile apps, survey finds  ... About two-thirds of grocery shoppers who own smartphones have used mobile applications while shopping, but they want a more seamless integration of features, according to a survey from Catalina and InsightsNow. Shoppers want digital and real-time coupons for items they actually buy, reminders about their shopping lists and a way to track spending, the survey found. The survey also found that shoppers are less interested in social media integration, copies of their receipts and generic geolocation notifications ... " 

Giving Up Your Right to Sue

In the press recently.  Users apparently giving up their right to sue via user agreements. Unclear how binding this is legally,  and the broader implications, but the I would be surprised if the bad PR does not cause General Mills to back off.

Individual Data for Health

In the CACM:   Not a new idea, but more value as we leverage analytics against bigger data.  Even for our own N=1.

" ... Consider a new kind of cloud-based app that would create a picture of your health over time by continuously, securely, and privately analyzing the digital traces you generate as you work, shop, sleep, eat, exercise, and communicate. While there are personal devices and Internet services specifically designed for self-tracking (Fitbit, Patients like me, http://quantifiedself.com, and so forth), digital traces include a much richer corpus of data that we generate every day, just by virtue of our normal activities. And while the use of electronic health records is increasing, today's systems capture data reported by clinicians, not patients; and data about clinical treatment, not day-to-day activities. ... " 

Mission Critical Lesson from P&G

Edward Burghard comments on the A.G. Lafley speech to the Association of National Advertisers 10-15-2000.    Had not seen this, quite good.  A Mission Critical Lesson From P&G.  On What The Economic Development Profession Can Learn From P&G. 

Resource Revolution

 In McKinsey:   Good overview of the challenge.  The emergence of a resource revolution to feed the technological changes created by innovation.  Lots of needs, and new allocations will be required.  " ... The resource revolution represents the biggest business opportunity in a century. However, success requires new approaches to management. Companies that try to stick to the old “2 percent solution” (just improve performance by 2 percent annually and you will be fine) are going to become obsolete quickly. Businesses that can deliver dramatic resource-productivity improvements at scale will become the great companies of the 21st century ... " 

Where will the Knowledge come From?

Recent conversations have brought this to mind.  People resource definitions in particular have become specialized and necessary.  Companies are ready to pay, but also need to fit them into still tight budgets.  The knowledge required to make projects happen also requires allocation of unexpected internal knowledge, and most companies do not have that knowledge easily accessible. And some of that knowledge is being lost day to day.

Thursday, April 17, 2014

A Smart Business Notebook Network

In FastCompany:  As a long time user of Evernote, this was interesting. Pointing towards the Moleskin physical notebook.  So not paperless.  Had been unaware of the former version of this.  " ...  The two companies have partnered up to create a special notebook for Evernote users geared toward enterprise customers. .... The primary difference between the Evernote Business Notebook and the Evernote Smart Notebook introduced two years ago is that the enterprise version allows users to selectively share their notes. ... "  

Negative Questions Managers Should Ask

In the HBR Blog (Registration required):   The kind of questions that a good manager should ask, and most do.  Still it is one of those things that is worth repeating.   It is relatively rare to ask the negative question, posed below.   In recent years this might be seen as anti-innovative.  But is always a useful exercise ...

" ... When something seems too good to be true, it usually is. And management techniques, practices, and strategies are no different. When you read a business book or attend a presentation on a particular management practice, it is a good habit to explicitly ask, “What might it not be good for?” When might it not work; what could be its drawbacks? If the presenter’s answer is “there are none,” a healthy dose of skepticism is warranted. ... "

Experfy Big Data Consulting

Received a note from Harvard Innovation Lab.   Regarding Experfy, which was new to me.   Interesting, taking a closer look.

Big Data Consulting Marketplace in Harvard Innovation Lab Invites Applications ... 
Experfy is a consulting marketplace where enterprises engage experts for their big data, analytics and business intelligence projects. We are looking for experts to join our data community. ... 

Intro to Unstructured Data

Good short piece on the increasingly important topic, by Radhika Subramanian.   The article also points to a free eBook on the topic.  Have not looked at that yet.   Its also important to understand two conundrums on this. One is that text is not the only unstructured data.  And second, that text has structure, notable from the increasing amount of natural language processing being used.  Language contains structure.

Analytic Methods and Massive Data

What are the limitations of analytic methods against increasingly massive amounts of data?  A Linkedin Discussion of interest. 

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

HR Strategy. Hiring Specialties or Growing Them?

In CWorld.    Self serving yes, but an alternate strategy for lack of specific IT skills.  Instead of hiring college trained people, probably younger people.  Hire older skilled people and train them intensely in the specialty. Cybersecurity is a good technical example, but others work as well.  Depends upon the person I think, a matter of trainable personality.  Yet managers in IT are always most proud of people they have 'made' into a exceptionally valued employee.   Older experienced folks are more typically seen as 'found'.

On Metadata Introduction

Been examining the state of metadata, here is a book with good background, if not completely up to date.  Mostly document oriented.   A good example where on line resources can be useful. Metadata: For Information Management and Retrieval  by David Haynes

Police Robotics

In Time: With video.  An old idea, but here apparently a commercial available system.   I always ask, how are these different from a remote movable camera?  How much autonomy is involved?  A number of relevant sensors are included,  like facial recognition and thermal imaging. Detection versus reaction.   The Knightscope company.

Capturing Ambient Intelligence

In CWorld:   Related to other work recently posted on.   Had not heard the term 'ambient intelligence' used before, but it fits.   An interesting step by Microsoft.   Again, its about sensors, data and delivering intelligent method.  What 'intelligent' means is still evolving.

" ... Microsoft is targeting the growing volume of data being generated by both machines and humans: CEO Satya Nadella on Tuesday showed off tools that could help organizations better understand -- and profit from -- this trove of information.

One new hosted service, called the Azure Intelligent Systems Service (ISS), promises to ease the process of managing machine data from sensors and devices connected in the so-called Internet of Things. ISS is now available as a limited public preview. ... "  

Deep Learning Innovation from Mobile Sensors

Out of Research at Purdue:   Interative contextual learning and reasoning is a powerful concept that will radically change how we use computing.  It will bring sensors to many new environments.   And analytics to the data gathered.

" ... Researchers are working to enable smartphones and other mobile devices to understand and immediately identify objects in a camera's field of view, overlaying lines of text that describe items in the environment.

"It analyzes the scene and puts tags on everything," said Eugenio Culurciello, an associate professor in Purdue University's Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering and the Department of Psychological Sciences.

The innovation could find applications in "augmented reality" technologies like Google Glass, facial recognition systems and robotic cars that drive themselves. ... " 

Tuesday, April 15, 2014

Data Culture and Business Sphere Focus

In Ars Technica:  The idea of a 'data culture' is something that Microsoft is promoting now ...  " ... Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella was in San Francisco today to talk about data and Microsoft's data platform. Nadella repeatedly spoke of Microsoft's "data culture"—using data and analytics to enable employees to get the information they need to understand their work, answer questions, and make decisions. ... " 

This sounds a lot like the approach we emphasized as a key element of what we called the 'Business Sphere'.  ...  Getting the right data and analytics to the right people at the right time. A means of making decisions in a focused and correct manner. Providing efficiency and value. Based on data.

I agree, this should be fundamental.  Microsoft, call me and we can discuss this.

Using Mind Maps to Support Exit Interviews

We suggested this, but it was never widely utilized.  In Biggerplate.  A good case study of the idea. The question that always came up: Does the additional complexity add knowledge to the result?  Or is it just the equivalent of a outline/checklist?   We suggested that the result could be interlinked among current knowledge, knowledge potentially lost, and knowledge that needed to be replaced. But that would require an accurate ontology of the knowledge to begin with.

On the Value of Social Data: Gnip Acquisition

In AdAge:  "  In Gnip Buy, Twitter Grabs Control of Key Data Middleman ...
The Acquisition is Yet Another Indicator of the Value Corporations and Investors See in Social Data ... "   Data has value that is driven by analytical methods.   See Gnip's site.  " ...  The World’s Largest and Most Trusted Provider of Social Data ... ".  Now being acquired by Twitter.

P&G Singapore Innovation Center

More on P&G's Singapore innovation center.  Including lots of images and descriptions of what goes on there.  Nicely done piece from P&G itself.  " ... Get a First Look at Our New Innovation Center in Singapore ... New high-tech center underscores our commitment to deliver superior value ... " .

  This continues an innovation center building process that began in 2001.  The largestprivate research facility in Singapore. See the Procter Innovation link for more.

The Loom, Robots, Innovation and Jobs

In the WaPo: The Loom and Innovation.  Anyone who has followed the history of computing knows the connection between the mechanical loom and computing in general.  This article takes the connection further.  " ... Will robots steal our jobs? The humble loom suggests not. ... " 

Kroger Digitizing Stores

In Retailing TodayOn how Kroger is digitizing retail.  Retail is the ideal industry to make this happen.  It operates an internet of things that closely integrate with an internet of increasingly connected people.  Analytics will make this more efficient and engaging.

" ... Kroger has unveiled a bold initiative to digitize every aspect of its physical store in an effort to measure a breadth of operational metrics to enhance the shopper experience. 

The company announced a partnership with eInfochips, Wincor Nixdorf and several other partners on a new enterprise IT architecture called Retail Site Intelligence. This architecture for stores of the 21st century uses ZigBee wireless mesh networks to integrate long battery life sensors, hand held devices, point-of-sale devices and video management software into a next generation platform for retail applications such as in stock optimization, loss prevention, store automation and video analytics which can be integrated with Kroger’s industry leading loyalty program data. ... " 

Monday, April 14, 2014

A Dream Tunnel Sequence from a Research Colleague

A research colleague has published!   I will start it soon ...

[Mark] " Lacy’s debut novel The Dreamtunnel Sequence is action-packed … Solid writing and a twisting plot …” – Kirkus Reviews

See also his blog: http://markelacy.com for a further discount, and more about his work.

Looks to be an interesting book.

Google Contact Lens Camera

A fairly detailed analysis of a patent application by Google that embeds cameras in the human eye.  I recall seeing a number of proposals like this a decade plus ago.  The idea itself is almost as old as the contact lens.   "  ... Google has patented a smart contact lens that could see its Glass wearable computer fit inside a smart lens  ... The firm has already developed a contact lens for diabetics analyses their tears, warning them if their glucose levels are low. ... Now it has revealed plans for a lens with a camera built in - opening the possibility of its Glass system being shrunk down significantly, offering features such as 'superzoom' to wearers and even helping the blind see. ... " 

New Methods Taking place of Cookies

In Adage: How Mobile-Tech Players Are Crumbling the Cookie. Microsoft, Google, Apple Look to Track Consumers on Phones, Devices .... " 

Multilingual Promotion Apps

Simple idea.  Useful statistics too. Quite appropriate: " ... Brands including General Mills and Clorox are targeting Hispanic consumers through the bilingual Veo mobile shopping app. The app engages consumers by using their native language to offer free product samples, recipes, promotions and giveaways. Experian data indicated that Hispanic consumers are twice as likely to accept advertisements on their smartphones as non-Hispanics and 58% are more likely to purchase those advertised items. The average Hispanic consumer also spends 18.2 minutes per month visiting shopping sites on their phones .... " 

Neuromarketing and Consumer Behavior

Had not seen this site before.  Here it is looks at a number of neuromarketing tests and associated data.  Useful thoughts, in particular about the limitations of such work:

" ... The claim that electroencephalograms (EEG) and functional MRIs provide access into the "truth" — that is, the real motivation behind a consumer's behavior — is a tantalizing prospect. It could also be unsubstantiated and misleading if generalized. Inexpensive brain scanning technology has unleashed a flood of new data, but few marketers are equipped with the tools and expertise to analyze it.

When there's hype, it often pays to be skeptical. However, it would be shortsighted to dismiss neuromarketing's potential power. Brain scans can be a source of useful information, provided that you know how to analyze and apply the data. ... " 

Apps as Medical Devices

Apps and their regulation:  Agree, this is a big deal.  " ... The potential of medical apps to improve care and lower costs is enormous. But if developers don’t know how these apps will be regulated, they’re going to spend their time on other pursuits rather than gamble on what regulators might do in the future. ... " 

AI Coming back. What Will it look Like Now?

Short piece on a number of examples how what we called AI is coming back.   Multiple and extended projects in the 90's led to real results, but not to extended uses in the enterprise decision process. Learning that came from AI were embedded in many places, and ended up leading to many computing expectations we have today.  Its still there, but well hidden.

Now is AI ready to come back to the mainstream?  I am seeing it in my own interactions with a number of companies.  The article mentions may well known examples.  It is still not easy to implement directly, which was our expectation at the time.   This blog continues to follow this topic. Follow along.    Always interested in collaborative examination of this topic.

Sunday, April 13, 2014

Diamond Cartel

Mark J Perry on the ultimate market manipulation, the diamond cartel.  Perception, however manipulated, is reality.

Metadata Lifecycle Management Considerations

An interesting diagrammatic look at the lifecycle of metadata.  Everything has a lifecycle, but the question is always: To what degree do we have to pay close attention to it?  The diagram is quite complex.  Its easy to say always, but attention always has a cost.  So is this really a portfolio of attention, and do we manage it that way?  More to follow as an exploration continues under the lifecycle tag.

Gamification as a Mainstream Approach

Short piece in CIO Insight: Makes the case that gamification is in common internal and external use. And quotes:

" ... Accenture points out that gamification isn't only for Millennials and techies; it's now in the mainstream. Building an effective strategy requires a focus on some combination of seven key components: status, milestones, competition, rankings, social connectedness, immersion reality and personalization. According to Accenture, many older adults are also becoming digital device-savvy. "And they are often just as keen as the young to compete with their peers and publicize their accomplishments—the essential principles of gamification," the authors note  ... ".

I still think it is difficult to implement, based on our own experience.  Dependent on corporate culture and still seen suspiciously by much of management. Especially for internal applications.   Mainstream?  Not yet, and we can't expect to grow out of it with the Millennials.  But worth understanding.

Magic of Shelf Level Eye Contact

In Supermarket News: Shelf level eye contact can make a big difference.  It was one of the first things we attempted to accurately quantify when designing shelf arrangement.   And this is easier to study now than ever before.  See some of the work on shelf virtualization. But a generalized influence measure is still illusive.

Building Loyal Customers

Knowledge@Wharton:  In an information age.  " .... While the digital age has changed the rules of marketing, a panel of experts at the recent Wharton Marketing Conference suggests that the most effective outreach, even for international brands, centers on personal connections rather than random tweets or texts. ... " 

Saturday, April 12, 2014

KDNuggets for Analytics

Long before Big Data there was KDNuggets.  Well worth the follow.   Which is a  " ... Data Mining Community Top Resource for Analytics, Data Mining, and Data Science Software, Companies, Data, Jobs, Education, News, and more ... "   Run by my new colleague: Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro, Ph.D. is the President of KDnuggets, which provides analytics and data mining consulting. Gregory is a founder of KDD (Knowledge Discovery and Data mining conferences) and is one of the leading experts in the field.  

Emergence of Embed-able Tech

CNN Tech on the emergence of embed-able  technology.  With some good current examples. Probably not as adaptable as wearable, but more convenient.  So when do we become cyborgs?

Smart Home Hub with Sensors

In GigaOM:  Continuing to look for intelligent hubs, with sensors that are adaptive to multiple conditions.    Here the ALYT:   " ... If the current generation of connected home hubs aren’t enough for you, then check out the Indiegogo campaign for ALYT (pronounced alight), which offers a slew of radios including Bluetooth and cellular for $149 or $179 depending on when you order. The idea is that ALYT acts as a redundant security system as well as a home automation center when combined with a package of sensors and video camera.  ...  "


What can we learn from neurogaming?   The ultimate user interface.  Wearability taken to its limit. Trends, companies and people to be following.

Business Intelligence to Address Data Discovery

In CWorld: Divining Data.

Just a few months ago I would not have directly connected Business Intelligence (BI) with what is usually called Data Discovery.  The later is usually connected to methods that find patterns in data using advanced analytical methods.  Also known more technically as Data Mining, finding the nuggets in vast streams of data being generated by companies today to leverage for value.  It is true that 'discovery' is a process that should be first done visually by people who are familiar with the data itself, and its context.  So in that sense Business Intelligence is Discovery as well and information delivery.  It is just not that in BI's usual implementation.

Friday, April 11, 2014

Technical iBeacon Basics

I found it interesting to see this relatively short O'Reilly piece on the basics of the iBeacon Apple location proximity sensor for retail.  Not very technical, but enough to understand the basics.

Prediction for Wearables Market

In CWorld:   And much more detail at the link.  " .... Wearable computers "took a huge step forward" in the last year and shipments of smartwatches and related devices will grow by 78% a year until 2018, IDC said Thursday.

The number of such devices should top 19 million by the end of 2014, triple the number from last year, IDC said. In 2018, that number should swell to almost 112 million. ... " 

Price of Being First in New Technology

In Cisco Blog:  Very good piece.  There is always a price, and perhaps the largest is the assumption that you will assume that you will always retain that position, exclusive or otherwise.  Especially in today's rapidly changing world.

Security Cameras Creating Big Data

In the 90s in Europe we worked with a large retailer for a test of this idea.  Re purposing security cameras to understand in store customer movement.   Will the addition of better analytics make this valuable?  In GigaOM.

Kroger Store of the Future

In RIS News:    Provides considerable new opportunities for analytic understanding of the shopper experience under varying contexts.  Expect to see much more of this.

" ... One of the largest retailers, Kroger, has introduced its new Retail Site Intelligence (RSI) enterprise IT architecture. The architecture helps drive the store of the future by using ZigBee wireless mesh networks to integrate video analytics, wireless devices, POS devices, handheld sensors, scales, IP cameras, and Vigil360 video management software into a next-gen platform for retail applications, including loss prevention, store automation and analytics. ... " 

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Optimizing Customer Loyalty Using Bayesian Networks

In the Latest Bayesia Newsletter.   For optimization of Loyalty.  An approach I had not seen in this area before.   " ... This tutorial illustrates an innovative market research workflow for deriving marketing and product planning priorities from auto buyer surveys. In this study, we utilize the Strategic Vision New Vehicle Experience Survey, which includes, among many other items, customers’ satisfaction ratings with regard to over 100 individual product attributes ... " 

Wolfram Language for Knowledge Programming

Wolfram Language, just examining:

" .... Introducing knowledge-based programming...Designed for the new generation of programmers, the Wolfram Language has a vast depth of built-in algorithms and knowledge, all automatically accessible through its elegant unified symbolic language. Scalable for programs from tiny to huge, with immediate deployment locally and in the cloud, the Wolfram Language builds on clear principles—and 25+ years of development—to create what promises to be the world's most productive programming language. ... " 

Particularly interesting because of Wolfram's development of AI capabilities in recent years, like Wolfram Alpha.   See the query examples, which are natural language based.

Wolfram and Wearable Data Science

An interview with Stephen Wolfram of Mathematica on reinventing data science for wearables. Not an area I had heard them talk about before.

Practical Virtual Reality for Work

We explored many opportunities in this space.  But not with success.  See the tag link on Virtual Reality at the bottom of this post for some examples about that extended experience.  Here in Fast Codesign.  Suggestion that VR in the typical workplace is getting practical:

" ... Little is said about using VR in the workspace. Letting VR replace the desktop monitor would bring physical benefits, such as freeing up desk space and giving you a wider spatial and more customizable area in which to arrange your applications--and you wouldn't need several monitors to do it. An unintended consequence is that it would let you work distraction free. Cubicle walls would no longer be necessary because you'd be "walled-in" by a VR headset.

A handful of companies have tried to revolutionize our work spaces in ways that are eye-catching but not geared to everyday office work. There's Fujitsu Laboratories' projection and gesture-based system, though this would be difficult to set up for various users. .. " 

Methods for Dealing with Product Counterfeiting

An important challenge for the CPG enterprise.  Nothing very new here, but some thoughts about how to address these challenges.  Emphasizing food and beverage issues, but broadly applicable:

" ... Counterfeiting of branded goods is growing globally, and losses from counterfeiting cost retailers and manufacturers nearly $1 trillion each year and more than 75,000 jobs in the U.S., according to a study from the Food Marketing Institute and Grocery Manufacturers Association.

“This study pinpoints the opportunities that retailers and manufacturers have to reduce the chance for counterfeit products from reaching shelves and finding their way into consumers’ homes,” said Mark Baum, FMI‘s senior vice president of industry relations and chief collaboration officer. “We must be vigilant about safeguarding our supply chain from counterfeiters and step up our efforts to stop organized retail theft.” ... " 

Made in the Future

Tim Brown of IDEO announces: Made in the Future.  Looks to be of interest:

Does changing how you make things change the way you live?

The answer is “yes,” according to Made in the Future, an experimental project I collaborated on with some colleagues at IDEO Boston. The Made in the Future website recently launched and it explores how today’s innovations in maker technology might affect designers and society at large five to ten years from now.

To get inspired about what making something by hand means to people, we constructed toy airplanes with kids, cooked alongside chefs, built motorbikes with weekend gear heads, and hung out with gifted researchers at the MIT Media Lab. We looked at cutting-edge innovations in designing, manufacturing and distributing, and asked: where’s it all heading next? It was all incredibly inspiring and we learned a lot. ... "